How to Refute Sola Scriptura

Bible with leaves around it

Sola Scriptura, or Scripture Alone, is the heresy within Protestantism that begets all other heresies. Undoubtedly, Protestant Christians hold to this doctrine out of sincere piety, rightly insisting that the Scriptures are from God and we must trust them completely. This reverence for the Holy Scriptures is commendable. Though in theory Protestantism does not deny Christian history and tradition, it relies on the Scriptures as the only word of authority in establishing dogma and thereby negates the influence of the two former in practice. Sola Scriptura also falsely posits that the Scriptures are perspicuous, or translucent and easy to understand, to anyone who reads them. In this post, we explore this innovative doctrine in depth and explain how, as an Orthodox Christian, one can lovingly refute Sola Scriptura.

Estimated reading time: 14 minutes

At some point, every Protestant with integrity must ask themselves why Protestantism has resulted in thousands of different groups who all claim to possess the correct interpretation of the Bible. If Protestantism and Sola Scriptura truly come from God, why can none of these thousands of groups agree on what the Bible says, or on something as basic as what it means to be Christian? How can they all claim to know what the Bible says, and yet not agree on what that is?

Where did Sola Scriptura come from?

The Great Schism of 1054 ended with the formal separation of the Orthodox East and Roman Catholic West. After this mutual excommunication, the Roman church cut off all connection with its Eastern Orthodox heritage. Without the Eastern archbishops to check the archbishop of Rome, the Roman Catholic church began promoting corrupt, degenerate teachings. The primary grievance (though there were many) most Reformers had at the time was the institution of indulgences, which the faithful could purchase to remove the punishment of purgatory from the souls of departed loved ones. As a response to all the doctrinal errors of the church, Martin Luther wrote The Ninety-Five Theses. In this work, he denounced the practices of Roman Catholic clergy in selling indulgences and promoting the concept of purgatory to laypeople, among many other things.

Knowing this, we can understand (and even sympathize with) the actions of Martin Luther and other early reformers. After all, their goal in breaking from Roman Catholicism was to cleanse the church of its corruption. And in their eyes, that corruption stemmed from the papacy itself. Luther could take only one logical path: he couldn’t look to tradition to fight the abuses in the church, because tradition itself (as the West believed it to be) was personified by the papacy. He could appeal only to Holy Scripture, and in it hope to find the evidence he needed.

False assumptions underlying Sola Scriptura

In order to refute Sola Scriptura, it is important to first understand the false assumptions under which this doctrine operates. Let’s take a look at each of these in detail.

1. Claiming Scripture alone served as the basis for the early Church.

Protestants assert that the Bible contains everything we need to know about the Christian life. However, this begs the question: how can the Bible stand apart from the Church and the vibrant, living Tradition that created it?

The word “tradition” has become a derogatory term among Protestants, one that denigrates anything Protestantism rejects into something fleshly, legalistic, and destructive. However, it is logical to conclude that the first Christians (as former Jews) had some form of liturgical worship and followed traditions of their own set forth by the Apostles (1 Thessalonians 2:15; 1 Corinthians 11:2; 11:23), and that those things may not have been explicitly written down.

How can we distinguish between Holy Tradition and man-made traditions? Christ Himself sets the measurement for this, establishing the source of the tradition as the test of its legitimacy. In other words, when the tradition comes from Christ (and by extension His Apostles), that tradition is legitimate. But when we hold to traditions that did not come from Christ (like Sola Scriptura), we are in error.

The real question is which tradition we should use to interpret the Bible. Should we trust the Apostolic Tradition of the Church that gave us the Scriptures, with roots tracing back to Christ? Or should we trust the muddled, modern traditions of Protestantism, which make every man his own pope?

Man deepens his spiritual life by reading the Bible.

2. Using the New Testament to determine what is acceptable in worship

Despite only possessing a handful of Apostolic letters and copies of OT manuscripts, early Christian churches followed a liturgical worship structure. Their worship did not depend on the Bible, yet it was somehow miraculously consistent.

Protestants often cite the NT as their doctrinal authority in determining what is and is not allowed in worship. However, careful examination of the books of the NT exposes a flaw in this approach. We can divide the NT into four genres:

  1. Gospels – tell of Christ’s life, death, and resurrection
  2. Historical narratives – history of the early Church
  3. Epistles – addressed specific problems in the early Church
  4. Apocalyptic prophecy – shows us God’s ultimate triumph

Notice none of these give any details about how to worship in the Church; rather, the OT contains these (e.g. Leviticus, Psalms). Granted, Protestants will cite these as well, albeit out of context. What references to worship we do see show that early Christians worshiped as their fathers did before them, observing prescribed hours of prayer (Acts 3:1) and worshiping in the Temple (Acts 2:46; 18:4). The NT does not provide comprehensive doctrinal instruction, either (e.g. there is no catechism or systematic theology).

The Bible clearly doesn’t contain teachings on every important subject in the Church. The same Church that handed down and preserved the Holy Scriptures, is the same Church from which we receive our patterns of worship. If we mistrust the Church’s faithfulness in preserving Apostolic worship, then we must also mistrust her preservation of the Scriptures.

3. Asserting anyone can interpret the Scriptures on their own.

When Sola Scriptura first came about, Reformers reasoned that anyone could understand Scripture simply by reading it. In other words, you didn’t need the Church to help correctly interpret the Word of God:

Someone will say that on the one hand, the Scriptures are absolutely free from error; but on the other hand, they have been concealed by much obscurity, so that without the interpretations of the Spirit-bearing Fathers they could not be clearly understood […] What has been said in a scarcely perceptible manner in some places in the Scriptures, has been stated in another place in them explicitly and most clearly so that even the most simple person can understand them.

Tübingen Lutheran Scholars, letter to Patriarch Jeremias II (emphasis added)

Though these scholars argued the writings of the Fathers unnecessary, they used these same writings often – so long as their interpretation of Scripture aligned with the Fathers’. Where Scripture and the Fathers diverged, they claimed their interpretation of Scripture superior to the Fathers, who had proven themselves righteous and holy. Patriarch Jeremias II exposed the true character of their teachings in his response:

Let us accept, then, the traditions of the Church with a sincere heart and not a multitude of rationalizations [….] Let us not allow ourselves to learn a new kind of faith which is condemned by the tradition of the Holy Fathers. For the Divine apostle says, “if anyone is preaching to you a Gospel contrary to that which you received, let him be accursed” (Galatians 1:9).

We must adhere to the Tradition passed down to us by the Apostles through the Church and lean on the collective understanding of centuries of unchanging worship, doctrine, and faith. Believing our mind alone is sufficient to understand the complexity of God’s Word is the height of hubris.

Responses you might receive from a Protestant

The false assumptions we outlined above result in the inevitable splintering within Protestantism. However, this is often not enough to dissuade someone from supporting Sola Scriptura. Supporters of this heresy may say many things to defend their beliefs. In this section, we’ll explore some of these statements.

“2 Timothy 3:15-17 proves Sola Scriptura.”

Nowhere does the Bible actually say it is the sole authority, or that we should reject Holy Tradition. However, if you ask a Protestant where the Bible says this, they usually point to 2 Timothy 3:15-17. In faulty translations, “sufficient” takes the place of “profitable,” which is where the Scripture Alone argument comes from.

Context: St. Paul wrote this letter to Timothy (a bishop) in the later half of the first century. At this time, several books and letters that would become part of the New Testament had yet to be written. And they would not be canonized into the Bible we know today until the fifth century! When a Protestant uses this passage to justify Sola Scriptura, they unwittingly refute themselves by excluding the entire NT canon, including 2 Timothy itself.

Another common argument here is that St. Paul doesn’t mention tradition explicitly, which means he therefore rejects it. Not only is this illogical, but it also ignores the use of oral tradition just a few verses earlier. In 2 Timothy 3:8, Paul mentions Jannes and Jambres, the magicians of Pharaoh. Neither of these men are mentioned by name in the OT. Paul draws upon the oral tradition of the Exodus account to provide these names.

Why the Church canonized the Bible

“The Bible says what it means and means what it says.”

The interesting thing about this statement is that the person who says it often contradicts themselves and cannot maintain consistency. If you produce a verse/passage with a literal translation they disagree with, suddenly that verse/passage is not meant to be taken literally.

Perhaps the best example of such a passage is the Last Supper, in which Christ explicitly states, “this is my body…this is my blood” (Matthew 26:26-28). A couple others are when Christ empowers the Apostles to forgive sins, which establishes the Sacrament of Confession, and when Paul tells us women should cover their heads during worship. Protestants will claim such verses are merely symbolic, and not meant to be taken literally, because they don’t agree with the literal interpretation. Point out this inconsistency with kindness, and ask the person why they feel it is acceptable to only apply literal translations only when they decide to do so.

“Clear passages can interpret the unclear.”

This seems like a nice solution, since one would use Scripture itself to interpret Scripture. However, how does one determine which passages are clear, and which ones are not? In the end, it all boils down to each person’s subjective opinion, and the prideful belief that their approach must be correct, while everyone else must be wrong. Unfortunately, Protestants will never reach consensus here, either. As we read in the Scriptures, “Pride goes before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall” (Proverbs 16:18).

“The Holy Spirit will guide me to the right interpretation.”

Imagine you decide to interpret a Bible verse a certain way, and you are convinced the Holy Spirit guided you to that interpretation. Naturally, anyone who disagrees with you cannot possibly be led by the same Holy Spirit. Otherwise, how could we explain all these different, contradictory interpretations? God is not the author of confusion.

Divorced from the Holy Tradition of the Church, one cannot unilaterally assume their individual interpretation comes from the Holy Spirit.

The Orthodox Approach

St. Irenaeus once said of heresy: “It is craftily decked out in an attractive dress, so as, by its outward form, to make it appear to the inexperienced (ridiculous as the expression may seem) more true than truth itself.”

Unlike Protestantism, Orthodoxy does not approach Holy Scriptures in a scientific (and therefore inherently limited) way. The Orthodox Church claims a superior understanding of Holy Scripture on the basis of its relationship to the Author, Christ. The Church is the Body of Christ, and it is through the Church that God wrote and preserved Holy Scripture. Without the Church’s Holy Tradition, we would not have the Bible at all.

How do we know the Tradition of the Orthodox Church is the right one?

Avoid pride in answering such a question, and instead approach this with understanding and patience. Remember that as a Protestant, the other person probably has limited knowledge about the history of the Church, the Ecumenical Councils, and the Church Fathers. Tracing back through time, no matter where we start, we will all arrive at the same Church, whose Faith has remained steadfast and unchanged since the beginning. Thankfully, many Protestants are doing this, and becoming Orthodox as a result!

We NEED the Church.

In the absence of true unity, Protestantism has created a false one through relativism. In other words, the only belief Protestants often condemn is one that makes exclusive claims about the Truth.

Capital T “Tradition” vs. Lowercase t “tradition”

When we refer to Tradition with a capital “T,” we speak of the deposit of faith manifest in the Church (1 Cor. 11:2; 2 Thess. 2:15; 3:6). The word tradition, in Greek paradosis, means literally “to hand down” or “to deliver.” Thus St. Paul prefaces his confession of faith with the words, “For I delivered to you first of all that which I also received” (1 Cor. 15:3). The source and inspiration for Holy Tradition is the teaching of the Apostles and the continual guidance of the Holy Spirit in the Church (John 16:13). Holy Tradition preserves the faith as it was received from the Apostles and their disciples.

Contrary to this belief, the Church is united. This unity stretches back through time and extends into the present moment. Though the Apostles departed this life long ago, they never departed from the unity of the Church. We are all alive in Christ, even those of us who have died. So, every time we celebrate the Eucharist in our local parish, we celebrate it not only with all those who departed before us, but with the entire Body of Christ still alive on this earth. We are not isolated, even though it may seem this way in our limited understanding.

Because of this unity, we know we not only learn from those in the flesh God has placed in the Church to guide us, but also from the teachers of the Church no longer among us. Saint John Chrysostom is as much our teacher as our bishop or priest today, as he is alive in Christ and part of the all-encompassing unity of the Church. Therefore, we must interpret Scripture as a Church, as one Body, and not as individuals relying on our own exclusive understanding. This is the reality of the Church, and it demands we exercise self-denial, humility, and love.

How the Orthodox interpret Scripture

In the correct approach to Scripture, we do not worry about originality. Our goal is to understand the Tradition of the Church and comprehend the interpretations of the Bible in this context. We must faithfully pass on the tradition we received, as St. Paul urges us to do. In order to do this, we must enter deeply into the mystical life of the Church. In his work, On Christian Doctrine, St. Augustine explains the type of person one must be in order to correctly understand Scripture. Notice he doesn’t focus on the amount of knowledge you must have, but on the constitution of your character. This person:

  1. Loves God with his whole heart and is empty of pride;
  2. Seeks the Knowledge of God’s will with faith and reverence, not pride and greed;
  3. Possesses a pious heart and purified mind, doesn’t fear men or seek to please them;
  4. Seeks nothing but union with Christ;
  5. Hungers and thirsts after righteousness;
  6. And diligently engages in works of mercy and love.

What an incredible standard we have to live up to! If we examine ourselves honestly, no one can say he meets all of these criteria (or even half of them). This is why we must lean on the guidance of the Church and the Fathers, who did meet these standards. We can’t delude ourselves into thinking we have more knowledge or understanding of God than they. This makes us horribly arrogant, especially if we believe this without taking the time to learn about Holy Tradition at all and decide we somehow know better.


The doctrine of Sola Scriptura operates under a number of false assumptions and incorrect solutions, and thus it can easily be refuted. Taken in the proper context, within Holy Tradition, the message of the Scriptures becomes clear. And if we ever question something we read, we must turn to the writings of those who knew the Apostles well – like Saint Ignatius and other early Fathers – and not nurse our own pride by thinking we know better than they.

Christ tells us, “every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a bad tree bringeth forth evil fruit” (Matthew 7:17). If we judge Sola Scriptura by its fruit, we are left with one conclusion: this tree must be “hewn down, and cast into the fire” (Matthew 7:19).

Read More: 5 Things The Orthodox Should Know About The Reformed

Share this post

Learn About The Orthodox Faith
Right From Your Inbox!

4 Responses

  1. Dear sir tell me where the Bible tells us to pray to Mary or the saints pray repetitive prays
    Use a wool cloth with beads to help us pray
    Where in the Bible is it mentioned about eleborate ceromonies in the worship and the need for clergy to wear elaborate clergy garbs or that Mary is born immaculately and is co redemtrix or the pope is infallible and supremacy I applies to all Christians and what about indulgences and purgatory and kissing images and statues of saints and Mary
    Non of this is found in the Bible your church and the Roman Catholics try to say traditions and equal to the Bible
    Did not jesus when he refuted in the book of Mathew the traditions the saducees held which. Blocked the widows and orphans from obtaining heaven and salvation jesus said the cup is beautiful on the outside but inside it is full of corruption and inquity this is how the eastern and Roman Catholic Churches look beautiful and other worldly with its bells and smells and beautiful hymns but spritualy dead and bankrupt

  2. John,

    Christ is in our midst! The Eastern Orthodox Church is far from spiritually dead! One can only know this through the authentic experience of the Church and her Holy Tradition. We invite you to come and see!

    Regarding your requests about citations from the Scriptures, might we ask a question in return? Where does the Bible tell us that only the things contained within it are acceptable spiritual practices for faithful Christians? Does not the Scripture also say that we are to hold fast the Traditions which have been passed down to us (2 Thess. 2:15)?

    Since Our Lord is God of the living, not God of the dead, those who depart this life remain alive in Him. Thus, they continue to pray and to exist in some way we cannot completely comprehend, in His presence, until the Last Day. We are taught by St. James that the prayers of the righteous avail much (5:16), and thus would be remiss not to ask the Lord’s righteous ones to intercede for us before Him.

    The use of the prayer rope is not required, but is merely an extra spiritual tool given to us through Holy Tradition that many faithful find aids them in concentrating on prayer and on stillness of mind.

    While the worship of the Eastern Orthodox Church may seem elaborate from a Protestant point of view, the word is actually “liturgical”. It is built around the same formula as the worship services of the ancient synagogues, services which the Apostles themselves attended, and whose format and content they brought over with them into the fullness of the Christian Faith. This includes the use of incense (Lev. 16:12-13) and many other things you will see if you actually attend the divine services in person. Regarding garments for clergy, those developed over time as a way to differentiate clergy from laypeople, and they symbolize the whole armor of God with which we are to clothe ourselves (Ephesians 6:11-18) that we may be able to stand against the devil.

    The Eastern Orthodox do not believe in the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary; only that her womb was sanctified by the coming of the Holy Spirit at the Annunciation when the Archangel Gabriel came to visit her. Neither do the Orthodox believe the Theotokos is “co-redemtrix”, that the pope is infallible or supreme over any other bishop, that indulgences are acceptable, or that purgatory – a place of payment for sins we are required to pass through before entering heaven – exists. While there are no statues of the Holy Virgin in Orthodoxy, we do venerate icons of her. However, veneration and worship are quite different, especially when we look at the original Greek in which these things are written about.

    Lastly, yes. Tradition is indeed just as equal an authority to the Bible. How could it not be, when it was Tradition itself that gave us the Bible? After all, if you discount Tradition, you must discount ALL that it produced. And that includes the Scriptures themselves.

    We hope this has helped you better understand what the Eastern Orthodox truly believe. God bless!

  3. Hello from a fellow Western Pennsylvanian! Pleased to see such in depth content from a local church. As a Protestant interested in the broader church and church history, wanted to say I have appreciated this and other articles on this website.
    I respect the Orthodox traditions and see how the church does a great job maintaining a valuable history and tradition over time, and allows us a window into the early church. A conflict for me though is how dissenting ideas, even though they may be valid, seem to be overruled by authority with no room for disagreement. A big example of this sounds like the 7th Ecumenical Council: some believers do not want to venerate the icons for fear over overstepping the “graven image” law. I don’t know why it was better to have excommunicated these believers rather than allow room for people to both use icons or avoid icons in worship.
    Additionally, although Protestantism has spawned many many denominations, for the majority of them there is tremendous doctrinal agreement.
    You should know that we also have had lives transformed by encounters with and the teaching of Christ. Confession, communion, worship and other sacraments are also staples of Protestant churches, though they look different.
    Could probably discuss for hours! Once again thank you for your write-up here. It has been edifying and helped me think through these things on a deeper level. I wish you and your church success.

    1. Shawn,

      Christ is in our midst! Thank you for your compliments – glory to God! To use your example, the believers who fear overstepping the second commandment need not fear this, because the Church, as the Body of Christ, assures them that to do so is not idolatry. And there is a profound sense of peace in this kind of submission and trust in Christ and His Church. (Naturally, this does not mean we accept anything a priest or bishop tells us – all they preach and teach must be vetted by the Councils and the teachings of the Fathers of the Church.) The proclamations put forth by the Seventh Ecumenical Council expound on the true nature of icons and the difference between veneration and the worship due to God. The Church was given the Faith once delivered to the Saints, and along with that comes a very tangible amount of authority. In submitting ourselves to the teachings of the Church – Christ’s Body – we, in turn, submit ourselves to Christ God Himself. Authority is not something to buck our heads at, but rather something to humbly accept, even if we have reservations or do not completely understand.

      And for the record, we wholeheartedly acknowledge that the Holy Spirit has the ability to transform the lives of individuals outside His Church, according to His will. 🙂 You are right – these discussions can get quite long winded! Again, thank you for your gracious comments. May God bless you!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Prayer And Candle Requests

***If you would like to offer prayers for living and departed, please submit two separate requests: one for the living and one for the departed.